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Under the Law (Article 51 Law n. 289 27/12/2002 - "Provisions relating to insurance of sports") licensed amateur athletes are required to have insurance. Therefore, all members of the Association are required to be insured against accidents. The Association, through membership in a body recognized by the Sports Promotion cones, provides members with an annual insurance, which covers those accidents occurred during and because of the conduct of sports, which is derived from the death or a permanent disability. The characteristics of the policy and its coverage will be communicated to shareholders every year when renewing.

Members can enter their choice of supplementary insurance policy to the base, is among those made available by the Sports and from other insurance companies. The cost of such insurance is not included in membership dues and will be charged to the member.

In case of accident or injury (which occurs only during the activities of the Association), and used for applications for reimbursement should contact the member only and exclusively to the Executive Council, and as soon as possible should produce all the documents that will be required to complete the practice. In any case, the claim will be reimbursed according to the rules governing the contract of insurance in force at the time of the accident: the Association, while enabling the practice with the highest priority possible, is in no way responsible for the moods and tenses in which insurance reimbursement is perfected. In addition, the Association is under no obligation to anticipate their own reimbursement for damages and / or medical expenses. Costs are strictly forbidden advances or reimbursements "in private" between partners or third parties: the refund is solely and exclusively for the official channels, through the Insurance Company or Reference Sports Promotion Board. Depart or illegal behavior will be severely punished.

the marker (Marker in English)
The marker is the key component for playing paintball. Its purpose is to shoot the marbles on a predetermined area. A functional marker has 4 basic elements:
- The marker
- The loader
- The cylinder
- Plug or barrel sleeve (pouch)

Types of Markers

• Stock Class: have a limited number of balls, outfitting manual and one 20 g CO2 cartridge.
• Markers Pump: the arming is manual.
• semi-automatic markers: the weaponry requires pressure on the trigger for each shot fired, and, through a mechanism, then you shoot the ball will be reloaded later.
A semi-automatic marker can be either:

1.meccanico: where the drive is via a valve hammer;
2.pneumatico: where has the drive with the help of compressed air;
3.elettropneumatico: the arming occurs automatically when the tank is connected to the marker. Drive the ball is controlled by a solenoid (solenoid) that allows the passage of air from the pressure regulator. These types of markers provide an opportunity to set up much more, which affects not only the way of shooting (burst, full auto, ramping, etc..), But also on the performance of the latter (rhythm, speed and projection of the ball , time between shooting etc..). Virtually all the markers are provided as an electro-optical system to detect if the ball is in the correct firing position. This system is necessary to get great rates (beyond 20 balls per sec.) Without dividing the marbles.
The components of a marker

All markers, regardless of type, consist of the following components: body, handle and trigger, bolt and valve, throat load, ASA system (adaptation air system), front handle and barrel.

Depending on the manufacturer and these technologies can be used on 1 2 or 3 levels (engl. Bore). Depending on the type of marker it contains the valve, the bolt, the solenoid and the optical system that detects if the ball marker is the electropneumatic type.

Handle and trigger
In the case of mechanical markers, the trigger mechanism directly actuates a mechanical type. In the case of electronic and electro markers electronically actuates the trigger mechanism with the aid of a battery. All markers, regardless of type, are provided as a means of security that prevents the accidental discharge outside the field of play.

The bolt is the component that puts the ball in motion and operates the gas jet on the surface so that the ball is driven on the barrel. The valve ensures the flow of gas necessary for propulsion when the correct position. In some types of electro-pneumatic markers, more precisely, those of level 1, the bolt and valve are part of the same set.

Allows the load of marbles on the marker. And 'most often interchangeable, allowing the use of different types.
ASA (air system adaptation Eng. Air System Adapter)
The 'attack makes possible the assembly of cylinder-type CO2 or HPA (compressed air) and depending on the model, it can be with a closing of the air flow without removing the cylinder (engl. On / Off ASA ).

This ensures the air connection between ASA and the body of the marker. Markers in the most efficient there is a pressure regulator which can be adjusted by the pressure of gas that enters the barrel, acting on the speed of the ball.

Each type of marker is factory barrel diameter of 1.2 cm and a length of 25-27 cm. In paintball marker barrels, are the components that have the greatest variety, according to the manufacturers, type of holes, length, number of segments, diameter and material used. In paintball sport the most common models are those with a diameter of 2 pieces of interchangeable lengths of 25 / 27 cm. The reason for this is that the paint balls are initially produced with a diameter of from 0.687 to 0.690 cm, but because they are manufactured and guaranteed to stay in areas with optimal conditions, but by the time they leave the factory, they change their diameter due to temperature and humidity, resulting in a change in diameter from 0.682 to 0.695 cm. For maximum efficiency of a marker should therefore always have a correct relationship between the diameter of the ball and the barrel.

Principle of operation

For each type of marker, the operating principle is the same, whether mechanical or electro-pneumatic, and regardless of the weapon system.
The "bolt" that is part of the body of the marker, that getting the necessary drive, drives the ball in the barrel

Markers Pump: the arming is manual. The semi-automatic markers: the arming of the trigger pressure required for each shot fired, then you shoot the ball after being charged with the aid of a mechanism. A semi-automatic marker can be mechanical, pneumatic or electro-pneumatic.

Any marker can run on CO2 or HPA (compressed air), except that they can only operate electro-pneumatic. A great rhythms CO2 would cool down too much by going to damage the solenoid and electrical parts.


The tank balls. The average capacity of a charger is 170-200 balls. The need for support of the rhythms by 1-2 bps (balls per second) at 15-20 + bps has developed 3 types of packs:
1. Gravitational
2. Agitators
3. Forcefeed (load force)

Gravity loads
They are the most common models used and the gravitational force to load the marbles. In this way you have a load capacity of up to 4-5 balls per second.

There are chargers that come with a small electric motor and blades that stir the marbles in the bowl constantly waiting to drive balls into the marker and to prevent any blockage of marbles inside the magazine. This system can provide a load capacity of up to 10-12 balls per second.

The loaders are powered mixers of this type, also made with a cone and pallet loading, but these are on a rotating cone placed at the bottom of the charger, so that the balls are forced to enter into the throat of the same. This technology allows a theoretical capacity of up to 35 balls per second, capacity limit of resistance of the ball.

Provides the volume of gas needed for the game of paintball.
The cylinders are of 2 types: CO2 and Compressed Air HPA (High Pressure Air engl.)

The CO2 cylinders are generally used on mechanical markers. They can be equipped with an air-stop to prevent the liquid CO2 to enter into the marker, because it may damage sensitive parts. The adapter can also be provided with a closing / opening. The internal pressure is 1800 psi (approximately 120 bar / atmosphere) and the outlet pressure is 850 psi (approximately 56 bar / atmosphere).
The cylinder is made of aluminum and in 3 sizes: 7, 12 and 20 oz.
Every 5 years the cylinders must be subjected to a hydro-test to see if they can still be used, if they pass the test may be used for another 5 years.

The compressed air cylinders have a different construction than those of CO2, as they use higher pressures. Depending on the type can operate at 200 or 300 Bar All cylinders are equipped with pressure regulators, allowing a pressure of 850 psi output or 450 psi. There is another difference with respect to CO2 cylinders for the load method, the latter have a special link that allows loading of the cylinders to 200 bar with a higher pressure. The cylinders are made of aluminum, or aluminum and carbon fiber to reduce weight and increase strength. They are made in 3 volumes 0.8 1.1 or 1.5 standard liters. A cylinder 1.1 L loaded at 3000 psi (200 bar), can deliver between 800-900 shots, depending on the marker, and if the tank is loaded at 4500 psi (300 bar), then the average of the shots is from 1200 -1400, as a function of the marker used and the pressure roll.

Plug or barrel sleeve (pouch)
Although some markers have a safe that is mechanical or electronic, in any case, the cap or sleeve pipe is required, however, outside the field of play, in fact, considered the greatest moment of distraction. It has as its role in blocking the ball thrown by an accidental blow. The plug is inserted into the top of the barrel, if the bag is secured with an elastic string, tied to a fixed part of the marker.

The paint balls (paintballs engl.), are spherical gelatin capsules containing primarily polyethylene glycol, other non-toxic and soluble in 'water and food coloring. The paint is made up of substances which are found in foods are edible but have a very unpleasant taste. Generally the color of the cover does not necessarily indicate the color of the 'inside. Any type of marbles is biodegradable. The majority of the balls is described as having 68 gauge, but many factors influence the exact size, this varies from .681 to .695. For high performance balls have to be calibrated with the measurement of the barrel. The marbles are rarely perfectly spherical, and are very sensitive to moisture and temperature. A deposit is a perfect place under conditions of low humidity, with a constant temperature between 15th-20th (5-10th, or in the case of marbles used in the winter).
Generally the more expensive balls are manufactured to the most demanding players, and therefore have a higher performance. The ball will have a far more efficient as constant as possible, striking color paint (in tournaments are forbidden balls with red or color that mimic the blood), a rounder and coverage should be more fragile in relation to ' impact, but must also be resistant to not break when tirrage by force of the jet of gas.
The permitted speed of a ball is 300 fps (feet per second, feets per second) / 91 m / s, the output of the top of the barrel. The length of a piece of land (between 44-55 m) can lose the ball up 75m / s of the initial velocity

Given that the average weight of a ball is 3.2 grams, we can translate this into a bump up to 0.45 Newton exit extremity of the barrel and a minimum of 0.075 Newton after it has run the whole length of the ground.

Protective equipment previously described are the minimum necessary and obligatory for the game of paintball safely. In addition to the above equipment, players can opt for the following accessories to play in optimal conditions and professional.

1. The clothing
2. The chest pads, knees, elbows, genital area and femoral
3. The belt loaders for additional marbles
4. Wand for cleaning the barrel

The current standards
The existing law
General rules and safety standards
When all safety measures are met, the paintball sport is considered one of the safest sports outdoor / indoor, it has the lowest percentage of injuries in sports, just think that football has 17%.
1. And 'prohibited, without exception, the practice of paintball to people who do not have minimum age for the sport.
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